Irritative voiding symptoms (e.g. increased frequency and urgency) occur in many common pathologic conditions such as urinary tract infections and bladder outlet obstruction, and these conditions are well-established to have underlying inflammation that directly triggers these symptoms. However, it remains unclear as to how such diverse stimuli individually generate a common inflammatory process. Jürg Tschopp provided substantial insight into this conundrum when, working with extracts from THP-1 cells, he reported the existence of the inflammasome. He described it as a structure that senses multiple diverse signals from intracellular/extracellular sources and pathogens and triggers inflammation by the maturation and release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β and interleukin-18. Recently, many of these sensors were found in the bladder and the nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich-containing family, pyrin domain-containing-3, has been shown to be a central mediator of inflammation in several urological diseases. In this review, we introduce the nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich-containing family, pyrin domaincontaining-3 inflammasome, highlight its emerging role in several common urologic conditions, and speculate on the potential involvement of other inflammasomes in bladder pathology.
Current urology. 2017 Dec 30 [Epub]
Brian M Inouye, Francis M Hughes, Stephanie J Sexton, J Todd Purves
Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.