Fecal incontinence (FI) undoubtedly reduces quality of life and adversely affects the social life of the affected individual. FI has a higher prevalence with age and has an equivalent prevalence to urinary incontinence in patients with genitourinary disease, but is often not confirmed in these cases. A thorough investigation is needed to diagnose FI, with the common etiology of this condition in mind, and several questionnaires can be used to identify symptoms. The physical examination contains digital rectal examination carries out to identify the patient's condition. Ultrasound, colonoscopy, and rectum pressure test can be performed. Patients educated in diet-related issues, bowel movements, and defecation mechanism. Non-operative options such as diet control and Kegel exercise should be performed at first. Surgical treatment of FI is considered when conservative management and oral medications produce no improvement. Surgical options include less invasive procedures like bulking agent injections, and more involved approaches from sacral nerve stimulation to invasive direct sphincter repair and artificial bowel sphincter insertion. Good outcomes in FI cases have also recently been reported for barrier devices.
International neurourology journal. 2021 Jan 19 [Epub ahead of print]
HongWook Kim, Jisung Shim, Yumi Seo, Changho Lee, Youngseop Chang
Department of Urology, Konyang University College of Medicine, Daejeon, Korea., Department of Urology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea., Department of Urology, Dankook University College of Medicine, Cheonan, Korea., Department of Urology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Cheonan, Korea.