Contemporary Management of Vesicoureteral Reflux

Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) remains the most interesting topic of pediatric urology due to the dynamic nature of recent controversial publications. Starting from the need for a diagnosis to the necessity and effectiveness of treatment in preventing scars, VUR remains in the mist. Although recent strong evidence helped as fog lights in this blurriness, more data are required for achieving crystal clearance. This article aims to summarize and discuss the current state of the evidence regarding VUR management.

To provide a comprehensive synthesis of the main evidence in the literature on the current and contemporary management of VUR in children; to discuss conservative management with continuous antibiotic prophylaxis (CAP), especially its effectiveness and safety; and to review the current evidence regarding contemporary surgical techniques.

We conducted a nonsystematic review of the literature using the recent guidelines and PubMed database regarding surveillance, CAP, endoscopic, open, laparoscopic, and robot-assisted ureteral surgical treatment.

Despite the striking results of previous studies revealing the ineffectiveness of CAP, more recent studies and their two fresh meta-analyses revealed a positive role for CAP in the contemporary management of VUR. One of the most interesting findings is the redundant rising of endoscopic correction and its final settlement to real indicated cases. Patient individualization in the contemporary management of VUR seems to be the keyword. The evidence in the literature showed a safe and effective use of laparoscopic and robot-assisted laparoscopic reimplantations.

The goal of VUR treatment is to prevent the occurrence of febrile urinary tract infections and formation of scars in the renal parenchyma. The approach should be risk adapted and individualized according to current knowledge. Individual risk is influenced by the presentation age, sex, history of pyelonephritis and renal damage, grade of reflux, bladder bowel dysfunction, and circumcision status.

Vesicoureteral reflux is a nonphysiological reflux of urine from the bladder through the ureters to the kidney. Treatment depends on the presentation of the vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Therapeutic options range from watchful waiting to open surgery. This article aims to summarize and discuss the current state of the evidence regarding VUR management.

European urology focus. 2017 Sep 11 [Epub ahead of print]

Perviz Hajiyev, Berk Burgu

Department of Pediatric Urology, Ankara University School of Medicine, Cebeci Children's Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. Electronic address: ., Department of Pediatric Urology, Ankara University School of Medicine, Cebeci Children's Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.