Ureteroureterostomy: An Alternative to Ureteroneocystostomy in Select Cases of Pediatric Renal Transplantation

Ureteroneocystostomy is the standard mode of establishing urinary drainage in renal transplantation. However, donor-to-recipient ureteroureterostomy may be considered in the presence of a challenging bladder or an augmented bladder, or when the donor ureter might be compromised or is too short. This approach also preserves a nonrefluxing system with an orthotopic ureteral orifice.

We retrospectively reviewed the records of all pediatric renal transplantations in which ureteroureterostomy was performed at a single tertiary care pediatric center over the 12-year period from 2004 to 2015. Ureteroureterostomy was performed in end-to-side fashion from donor-to-recipient ureter. Patients with a history of symptomatic vesicoureteral reflux were excluded from ureteroureterostomy. Parameters were reviewed, including age, gender, source of renal transplantation (deceased or living donor), indications for ureteroureterostomy and complications.

Primary ureteroureterostomy was performed at 23 of the 213 renal transplantations (10.8%). At transplantation mean ± SD age was 11.7 ± 4.9 years and mean weight was 33.5 ± 18.9 kg. Two secondary ureteroureterostomies were done to salvage the ureter due to complications after ureteroneocystostomy. Of the patients 60% and 40% underwent ureteroureterostomy during deceased and living donor renal transplantation, respectively. The most common indications included a challenging small bladder due to anuria, a valve bladder and a neurogenic augmented bladder. Two urinary leaks (8%) occurred and no allografts were lost.

Ureteroureterostomy is a safe alternative to standard ureteroneocystostomy in renal transplantation. Ureteroureterostomy should be considered a primary option in certain complex situations and secondarily as a salvage procedure when ureteral problems develop after ureteroneocystostomy in patients who undergo renal transplantation.

The Journal of urology. 2016 Nov 14 [Epub ahead of print]

Frank J Penna, Armando J Lorenzo, Walid A Farhat, Hissan Butt, Martin A Koyle

Division of Paediatric Urology, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address: ., Division of Paediatric Urology, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.