Cryptorchidism or undescended testis is the most frequent congenital abnormality in newborn boys.
The process of testicular descent to the scrotum is controlled by hormones produced in Leydig cells, insulin-like3, and androgens. Variation in genetic and environmental factors might affect testicular descent. A failure of spermatogenesis and germ cell apoptosis resulting in infertility as well as an increased risk of neoplastic transformation of germ cell are the direct consequences of cryptorchidism in adulthood.
Agoulnik AI, Huang Z, Ferguson L. Are you the author?
Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA.
Reference: Methods Mol Biol. 2012;825:127-47.