Section of Pediatric Urology, Urology Unit, Department of Oncological and Surgical Sciences, University Hospital of Padova, Monoblocco Ospedaliero, Via Giustiniani 2, 35128 Padua, Italy.
Hypospadias is one of the most common congenital malformations of the male genitalia. Severe cases present with associated curvature greater than 30° and the meatus opening proximally to the penoscrotal junction. The perioperative management of patients with primary severe hypospadias is variable. Systematic evaluation of the upper urinary tract and the search for enlarged prostatic utricles seem unnecessary in patients with isolated primary severe hypospadias, and should be limited to severe cases with associated extraurinary malformations. Detection of a disorder of sex development is key for gender assignment and prognosis, but the identification of cases warranting a full work-up and the influence of such a diagnosis on the success of hypospadias repair is controversial. Preoperative hormonal stimulation allows for penile growth irrespective of the administration route. Associated morbidity is minimal, but its influence on the success of surgery is still unknown. An age of 6-18 months is generally recommended for surgery, but no trial data support this policy. Second-layer coverage of the urethroplasty and postoperative urinary drainage seem to reduce the complications of surgery, whereas postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis and type of dressing have minimal impact on surgical success. Overall, most interventions are based on weak evidence, and their influence on the outcomes of repair is ill-defined. Clinicians should be made aware of the evidence supporting any single intervention in order to standardize their management policies. We hope the issues outlined here will prompt researchers to design new studies to address the clinically relevant questions.
Castagnetti M, El-Ghoneimi A. Are you the author?
Reference: Nat Rev Urol. 2011 Apr;8(4):198-206.