Update on pediatric testicular germ cell tumors.

Testicular germ cell tumors are uncommon tumors that are encountered by pediatric surgeons and urologists and require a knowledge of appropriate contemporary evaluation and surgical and medical management.

A review of the recommended diagnostic evaluation and current surgical and medical management of children and adolescents with testicular germ cell tumors based upon recently completed clinical trials was performed and summarized in this article.

In this summary of childhood and adolescent testicular germ cell tumors, we review the initial clinical evaluation, surgical and medical management, risk stratification, results from recent prospective cooperative group studies, and clinical outcomes. A summary of recently completed clinical trials by pediatric oncology cooperative groups is provided, and best surgical practices are discussed.

Testicular germ cell tumors in children are rare tumors. International collaborations, data-sharing, and enrollment of patients at all stages and risk classifications into active clinical trials will enhance our knowledge of these rare tumors and most importantly improve outcomes of patients with testicular germ cell tumors.

This is a review article of previously published and referenced level 1 and 2 studies, but also includes expert opinion level 5, represented by the American Pediatric Surgical Association Cancer Committee.

Journal of pediatric surgery. 2021 Apr 15 [Epub ahead of print]

Jennifer H Aldrink, Richard D Glick, Reto M Baertschiger, Afif N Kulaylat, Timothy B Lautz, Emily Christison-Lagay, Christa N Grant, Elisabeth Tracy, Roshni Dasgupta, Erin G Brown, Peter Mattei, David H Rothstein, David A Rodeberg, Peter F Ehrlich

Department of Surgery, Division of Pediatric Surgery, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH 43205, United States. Electronic address: ., Division of Pediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, Cohen Children's Medical Center, New Hyde Park, NY, United States., Division of General and Thoracic Surgery, The Hospital for Sick Kids, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada., Division of Pediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, Penn State Children's Hospital, Hershey, PA, United States., Division of Pediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, Ann and Robert H Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States., Department of Surgery, Division of Pediatric Surgery, Yale-New Haven Children's Hospital, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States., Department of Surgery, Division of Pediatric Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, United States., Division of Pediatric General and Thoracic Surgery, Cincinnati Children's Medical Center, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati OH, United States., Division of Pediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of California Davis, Sacramento, CA, United States., General, Thoracic and Fetal Surgery, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, United States., Department of Surgery, Seattle Children's Hospital, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States., Department of Surgery, Division of Pediatric Surgery, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, United States., Department of Surgery, Mott Children's Hospital, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States.

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