Perioperative antibiotics prevent infections after surgery. Guidelines for antibiotic use allow the surgeon to balance the risks of adverse events and drug resistance with the benefit of reduced infection rates. However, due to a lack of evidence-based guidelines within pediatric urology, antibiotic practices vary widely. We performed a systematic literature review to investigate when and how authors report their antibiotic usage and infectious outcomes. Our aim was to analyze the available data on perioperative antibiotics and infection rates within pediatric urology.
This systematic review was conducted in line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A search strategy was devised to identify reports of pediatric urology surgery and use of antibiotics or infectious outcomes. Embase and Medline were queried with no year restrictions with subject heading terms to identify publications on common pediatric urology surgeries. The procedures studied were hypospadias repair, pyeloplasty, orchidopexy, ureteral reimplant, and circumcision. Two independent reviewers screened all titles and abstracts, followed by relevant full texts, for eligibility. Articles were included if the procedure was performed on the majority of study patients, the procedure was performed by urologic surgeons, and the population studied was a pediatric population defined as 0-18 years of age. Case reports, meta-analyses, and editorials were excluded. Data was extracted by one independent reviewer into a preformatted database. Collected data included journal type, date of publication, patient demographics, preoperative and postoperative antibiotic details including regimens, and infection outcomes. The primary outcome was reporting of antibiotic use preoperatively or postoperatively. Secondary outcomes included: reporting of infection, antibiotic class and dosage. Since all studies were diverse, only qualitative analysis was conducted.
We identified 1483 publications with 297 meeting inclusion criteria. Of these, 9% reported their use of preoperative antibiotics, and 34% reported their use of postoperative antibiotics. Only 6% of studies reported the specific antibiotic class, 15% reported duration, and 1% reported dosage and frequency. Infection outcomes were reported in 58% of studies. Only 57% of studies that reported on infection outcomes described their antibiotics practices.
Surgical antibiotic regimens and infection outcomes are infrequently included in pediatric urology studies, limiting the data available for development of evidence-based guidelines. Routine incorporation of antibiotic regimens, infection outcomes and adverse events in the pediatric urology literature will increase our ability to identify indications for antibiotics. Reporting of perioperative antibiotic outcomes in pediatric urology procedures will allow the eventual development of strong evidence-based guidelines.
Journal of pediatric urology. 2020 Jun 09 [Epub ahead of print]
Elizabeth Snyder, Charan Mohan, Jamie Michael, Sherry Ross
University of North Carolina (UNC) Department of Urology, 101 Manning Dr, Chapel Hill NC, 27514, United States. Electronic address: ., UNC School of Medicine, United States., UNC Department of Urology, North Carolina Children's Hospital, United States.