Is there a need for endoscopic evaluation in symptomatic boys with an unsuspicious urethra on VCUG? A consideration of secondary radiologic signs of posterior urethral valves.

A significant proportion of PUV becomes symptomatic after the perinatal period. Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) often fails to identify PUVs. This study evaluates the relationship between the radiological appearance of the posterior urethra, potential secondary radiological signs and endoscopically documented PUV in boys with febrile UTIs, VUR, refractory symptoms of bladder overactivity or suggestive sonography findings.

Data on VCUG findings and endoscopy from 92 boys (mean age 27 months) who underwent endoscopic PUV incision between 2012 and 2017 following a VCUG were reviewed. 24 boys with endoscopically unsuspicious urethras were included as control group (mean age 27.5 months). Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher's exact test.

In patients with PUV, the urethra was suspicious on a preoperative VCUG in 45.7%, whereas it appeared normal in 54.3%. Abortive forms of PUV were more frequently found in patients with a radiologically unsuspicious urethra (30%vs.16.7%, p = 0.15). Bladder neck hypertrophy on VCUG (16.7%vs.60.9%, OR 7.5, p < 0.001), a trabeculated bladder on VCUG (72%vs.37.5%, OR 4.3, p < 0.001) and a hypertrophied musculus interuretericus (38%vs.4.2%, OR 11.7, p < 0.001) were more common in patients with PUV and urethras appearing normal on VCUG as compared to controls.

Unsuspicious findings of the urethra on VCUG cannot exclude a relevant PUV and implicate a risk of disregarding abortive forms. The presence of secondary radiologic signs of infravesical obstruction on a VCUG despite an unsuspicious posterior urethra in boys with recurrent UTI's as well as refractory symptoms of bladder overactivity or suggestive signs on sonography must be further clarified endoscopically.

World journal of urology. 2020 Mar 30 [Epub ahead of print]

Bernhard Haid, Jonas Thüminger, Lukas Lusuardi, Tom P V M de Jong, Josef Oswald

Department for Pediatric Urology, Ordensklinikum Linz, Hospital of the Sisters of Charity, Seilerstätte 4, 4020, Linz, Austria. ., Department for Pediatric Urology, Ordensklinikum Linz, Hospital of the Sisters of Charity, Seilerstätte 4, 4020, Linz, Austria., Department of Urology, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg, Austria., Department of Pediatric Urology, University Children's Hospitals UMC Utrecht and Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

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