EAU/ESPU guidelines on the management of neurogenic bladder in children and adolescent part II operative management.

Treatment in children and adolescents with a neurogenic bladder is primarily conservative with the goal of preserving the upper urinary tract combined with a good reservoir function of the bladder. However, sometimes-even in childhood-conservative management does not prevent the development of a low-compliant bladder or overactive detrusor.

After a systematic literature review covering the period 2000-2017, the ESPU/EUAU guideline for neurogenic bladder underwent an update.

In these patients, surgical interventions such as botulinum toxin A injections into the detrusor muscle, bladder augmentation, and even urinary diversion may become necessary to preserve the function of the upper (and lower) urinary tracts. The creation of a continent catheterizable channel should be offered to patients with difficulties performing transurethral clean intermittent catheterization. However, a revision rate of up to 50% needs to be considered. With increasing age continence of urine and stool becomes progressively more important. In patients with persistent weak bladder outlets, complete continence can be achieved only by surgical interventions creating a higher resistance/obstruction at the level of the bladder outlet with a success rate of up to 80%. In some patients, bladder neck closure and the creation of a continent catheterizable stoma is an option.

In all these patients close follow-up is mandatory to detect surgical complications and metabolic consequences early.

Neurourology and urodynamics. 2019 Dec 03 [Epub ahead of print]

Raimund Stein, Guy Bogaert, Hasan S Dogan, Lisette Hoen, Radim Kocvara, Rien J M Nijman, Josine Quaedackers, Yazan F Rawashdeh, Mesrur S Silay, Serdar Tekgul, Christian Radmayr

Department of Pediatric, Adolescent and Reconstructive Urology, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Medical Center Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany., Department of Urology, University of Leuven, Belgium., Division of Pediatric Urology, Department of Urology, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey., Department of Urology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands., Department of Urology, First Faculty of Medicine in Praha, General Teaching Hospital, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic., Department of Urology and Pediatric Urology, University Medical Centre Groningen, Rijks Universiteit Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands., Department of Urology, Aarhus, Denmark., Division of Pediatric Urology, Department of Urology, Istanbul Medeniyet University, Istanbul, Turkey., Department of Urology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.