Pediatric and adolescent renal tumors account for approximately 7% of all new cancer diagnoses in the USA each year. The prognosis and treatment are varied based on factors including the underlying histology and tumor stage, with survival rates ranging from greater than 90% in favorable histology Wilms tumor to almost universally fatal in other disease types, including those patients with advanced stage malignant rhabdoid tumor and renal medullary carcinoma. In recent years, our understanding of the underlying genetic drivers of the different types of pediatric kidney cancer has dramatically increased, opening the door to utilization of new targeted biologic agents alone or in combination with conventional chemotherapy to improve outcomes. Several ongoing clinical trials are investigating the use of a variety of targeted agents in pediatric patients with underlying genetic aberrations. In this manuscript, the underlying biology and early phase clinical trials relevant to pediatric renal cancers are reviewed.
Cancer metastasis reviews. 2019 Dec 06 [Epub ahead of print]
Amy L Walz, Conrad V Fernandez, James I Geller
Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA. ., IWK Health Centre, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada., Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA.