Interventions to prevent urinary catheter-associated infections in children and neonates: a systematic review.

Few data are available to inform strategies for the prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) in children and neonates. Many recommendations are derived from studies in adults and cannot be applied to the paediatric population.

This study was aimed to identify all studies that measured the efficacy of an intervention for the prevention of CAUTI in children and neonates.

A systematic review using the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) was conducted. Eligible studies published between January 1st, 1995 and December 31st, 2017, were identified in PubMed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, LILACS, SciELO and DOAJ if applying an intervention with the aim of CAUTI prevention in inpatient children, infants or neonates. The following study designs were included: controlled and non-controlled before-and-after studies, (controlled) interrupted time series analyses and randomized controlled trials. Quantitative or qualitative studies on interventions in both adults and children were eligible if data on children could be extracted. Reviews, case series, letters, notes, conference abstracts and opinion articles were excluded.

Of 99 articles identified, six were included in the final analysis, after consensus from three independent investigators. Four studies used a multimodal strategy (using at least four or more different components at the same time) as follows: aseptic rules during catheter insertion and removal; cleaning the urethral meatus with sterile water; use of a new silicone catheter per insertion with a closed sterile drainage system by a sterile technique; daily evaluation of catheter requirement; placement of indwelling urinary catheters only for approved indications; reducing of urinary catheter days and positioning of the patient and collection device to assist in urine drainage. One study tested periurethral cleaning intervention to reduce CAUTI. One study described the association of the presence of a physician safety champion with urinary catheter device utilization ratios. Catheter-associated UTI reduction rates were reported in four studies; three achieved statistically significant decreases in CAUTI rates. Positive results were achieved only when a multimodal strategy was used with at least four or more components. This strategy could be adopted for paediatric healthcare institutions to reduce CAUTI rates in children and neonates.

Evidence exists to support the use of a multimodal strategy for CAUTI reduction in hospitalized children and neonates.

Journal of pediatric urology. 2018 Jul 21 [Epub ahead of print]

A R Araujo da Silva, A F Marques, C Biscaia di Biase, W Zingg, A Dramowski, M Sharland

Laboratory of Teaching of Prevention and Control of Healthcare-Associated Infections, Federal Fluminense University, Rua Marquês Do Paraná, 303-Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Electronic address: ., Laboratory of Teaching of Prevention and Control of Healthcare-Associated Infections, Federal Fluminense University, Rua Marquês Do Paraná, 303-Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil., Service de Prévention et Contrôle de L'infection, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève, Geneva, Switzerland., Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Division of Paediatric Infectious Diseases, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa., Paediatric Infectious Diseases Research Group, St George's Healthcare NHS Trust and St George's University, London, UK.

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