Pediatric calculi: cause, prevention and medical management

The incidence of pediatric nephrolithiasis is on the rise, with a significant related morbidity and a concomitant relevant increase in healthcare costs. The purpose of the present review is to portray the current epidemiology and cause of renal stones in children, to provide a framework for appropriate clinical evaluation on an individual basis, and a guidance regarding treatment and prevention for the following significant risk of lifelong recurrence and deriving complications.

The early identification of modifiable risk factors and other abnormalities is essential, to prevent related morbidity, the onset of chronic kidney disease, and the associated increased risk of developing other diseases. The implementation of risk reduction strategies, including dietary modifications and targeted pharmacological therapies, will significantly influence stone recurrences and preserve renal function.

Future research is desirable, with the aim to strengthen personalized conservative management of pediatric nephrolithiasis as first-line treatment.

Current opinion in urology. 2018 Jun 12 [Epub ahead of print]

Cesare M Scoffone, Cecilia M Cracco

Department of Urology, Cottolengo Hospital, Torino, Italy.