There is no clear consensus regarding investigating for accompanying genitourinary anomalies (GUAs) in patients with prepubertal acute epididymitis (AE). Moreover, risk factors for the recurrence and the need for a surgical intervention have never been discussed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the different clinical courses of prepubertal AE based on knowledge of preexisting GUAs. Between January 2005 and December 2014, AE was diagnosed in 189 pediatric patients <10 years old. Clinical characteristics and treatments were retrospectively analyzed. The median age at first AE was 64.3 months. A GUA was detected prior to the development of AE in 49 patients (known GUA group) including 34 with hypospadias. Among the other 140 patients (unknown GUA status group), six patients were diagnosed with a GUA after the first AE episode. In the known GUA group, 35 patients (71.4%) experienced recurrence and the only risk factor associated with recurrence was the presence of cystic dilated prostatic utricle (p = 0.013). In the unknown GUA status group, the risk factors for an existing GUA were being <1-year-old (p<0.001) and positive urine culture (p = 0.015). Only nine patients (6.4%) in this group experienced recurrence. Vasectomy was recommended for patients with recurrent AE with an accompanying GUA and performed in 19 patients (10.1%). Most GUAs are diagnosed prior to AE development. Clinicians should consider different treatment approaches based on whether the AE patient has been diagnosed with a GUA previously, because the clinical characteristics and the recurrence rate are significantly different.
PloS one. 2018 Apr 18*** epublish ***
Yong Seung Lee, Sang Woon Kim, Sang Won Han
Department of Urology and Urological Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.