Delayed closure of bladder exstrophy has become more popular; however, there is limited the evidence of its success. Existing literature focuses on intermediate and long-term outcomes, and short-term postoperative outcomes are limited by the small number of cases and varying follow-up methods.
The objectives of the current study were to: 1) compare 30-day complications after early and delayed closure of bladder exstrophy, and 2) evaluate practice patterns of bladder exstrophy closure.
The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Pediatric (NSQIPP) database from 2012 to 2015 was reviewed for all cases of bladder exstrophy closure. Early closure was defined as surgery at age 0-3 days, and delayed closure was defined as age 4-120 days at time of surgery. Demographic, clinical, and peri-operative characteristics were collected, as were postoperative complications, readmissions, and re-operations up to 30 days. Descriptive statistics were performed, and multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were performed for salient complications.
Of 128 patients undergoing bladder exstrophy closure, 62 were included for analysis, with 44 (71%) undergoing delayed closure. Mean anesthesia and operative times were greater in the delayed closure group, and were associated with more concurrent procedures, including inguinal hernia repairs and osteotomies. The delayed closure group had a higher proportion of 30-day complications, due to a high rate of blood transfusion (57% vs 11%). Wound dehiscence occurred in 6/44 (14%) delayed closures, as compared with 0/18 (0%) early closures. When compared with prior published reports of national data from 1999 to 2010, delayed closure was performed more frequently in this cohort (71% vs 27%).
The NSQIPP provides standardized reporting of peri-operative characteristics and 30-day complications, allowing a comparison of early to delayed closure of bladder exstrophy across multiple institutions. Assessing short-term risks in conjunction with long-term follow-up is crucial for determining optimal management of this rare but complex condition.
Delayed closure of bladder exstrophy is performed frequently, yet it carries a high rate of 30-day complications worthy of further investigation. This can be useful in counseling patients and families, and to understand practice patterns across the country.
Journal of pediatric urology. 2017 Dec 15 [Epub ahead of print]
J J Ahn, M Shnorhavorian, C Katz, A B Goldin, P A Merguerian
Division of Pediatric Urology, Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, WA, USA; Department of Urology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA. Electronic address: ., Division of Pediatric Urology, Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, WA, USA; Department of Urology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA., Division of Pediatric Surgery, Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, WA, USA., Division of Pediatric Surgery, Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, WA, USA; Department of Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.