Chronic prostatitis (CP) is a complex disease. Fragmentary evidence suggests that factors such as infection and autoimmunity might be associated with CP. To further elucidate potential risk factors, the current study utilized the Fangchenggang Area Male Health and Examination Survey (FAMHES) project; where 22 inflammatory/immune markers, hormone markers, tumor-related proteins, and nutrition-related variables were investigated. We also performed baseline, regression, discriminant, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. According to NIH-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI), participants were divided into chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS, pain ≥ 4; divided into IIIa and IIIb sub-groups) and non-CPPS (pain = 0; divided into IV and normal sub-groups). Analyses revealed osteocalcin as a consistent protective factor for CP/CPPS, NIH-IIIb, and NIH-IV prostatitis. Further discriminant analysis revealed that ferritin (p = 0.002) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) (p = 0.010) were significantly associated with NIH-IIIa and NIH-IV prostatitis, respectively. Moreover, ROC analysis suggested that ferritin was the most valuable independent predictor of NIH-IIIa prostatitis (AUC = 0.639, 95% CI = 0.534-0.745, p = 0.006). Together, our study revealed inflammatory/immune markers [immunoglobulin E, Complement (C3, C4), C-reactive protein, anti-streptolysin, and rheumatoid factors], hormone markers (osteocalcin, testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and insulin), tumor-related proteins (carcinoembryonic and PSA), and a nutrition-related variable (ferritin) were significantly associated with CP or one of its subtypes.
Scientific reports. 2017 Aug 22*** epublish ***
Yang Chen, Jie Li, Yanling Hu, Haiying Zhang, Xiaobo Yang, Yonghua Jiang, Ziting Yao, Yinchun Chen, Yong Gao, Aihua Tan, Ming Liao, Zhen Lu, Chunlei Wu, Xiaoyin Xian, Suchun Wei, Zhifu Zhang, Wei Chen, Gong-Hong Wei, Qiuyan Wang, Zengnan Mo
Institute of Urology and Nephrology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China., Center for Genomic and Personalized Medicine, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China., Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland., Center for Genomic and Personalized Medicine, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. ., Institute of Urology and Nephrology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China. .