We report on a 72-year-old male patient who developed sarcoidosis of the mediastinal lymph nodes, the liver, and the prostate 11 years ago. Seven years later, he underwent transurethral resection of the prostate by laser due to hematuria. Pathology of the resected chips showed a 'granulomatous prostatitis with epitheloid cells'. Malignancy was histologically excluded at that time. Four years later, he was diagnosed with an undifferentiated prostate carcinoma, with a Gleason score of 5 + 4 = 9. After initiation of antihormonal therapy, he underwent radical prostatectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy, which revealed a pT3b pN1 carcinoma with infiltrated resection margins. Three months later, the prostate-specific antigen level was 1.4 ng/ml, and a local recurrence was suspected by ultrasound; consequently, a (68)Ga-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET/CT was performed. This examination seemed to confirm the local recurrence, a right pelvic lymph node metastasis, and a hepatic metastasis. However, ultrasound with contrast medium could not confirm the metastatic spread to the liver. In palliative intention, radiotherapy of the pelvis was done. After 50 Gy, the supposed recurrence had markedly shrunk, and an additional boost dose with 16.2 Gy was applied. Two years later, the patient is still free of disease. Due to this clinical development, we doubt the diagnosis of a fulminant progression of the prostate cancer as suspected by PSMA-PET/CT. Instead, we suspect a recurrence of the previously proven sarcoidosis leading to false-positive results. Our focus in this report is on the interaction between PSMA-PET/CT and sarcoidosis. Another report on a case of sarcoidosis of the spleen seems to confirm this possibility [Kobe et al: Clin Nucl Med 2015;40: 897-898].
Case reports in oncology. 2016 Aug 17*** epublish ***
Robert M Hermann, Manoutschehr Djannatian, Norbert Czech, Mirko Nitsche
Center for Radiotherapy and Radiooncology Bremen and Westerstede, Westerstede, Germany; Institute for Radiation Oncology and Special Oncology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany., Center for Radiotherapy and Radiooncology Bremen and Westerstede, Westerstede, Germany., Center for Nuclear Medicine and PET/CT, Bremen, Germany., Center for Radiotherapy and Radiooncology Bremen and Westerstede, Westerstede, Germany; Department for Radiotherapy, Karl-Lennert Cancer Center, University of Schleswig Holstein, Campus Kiel, Kiel, Germany.