Surgical management of National Institutes of Health category II chronic bacterial prostatitis: a case series and scoping review of the literature.

National Institutes of Health (NIH) category II prostatitis refractory to antibiotic therapy can be challenging to treat. We present the outcomes from a case series of men who have undergone various surgical therapies to treat this condition. Additionally, we performed a scoping review of studies describing the characteristics and outcomes of patients surgically treated for chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP).

This is a single-center retrospective case series of adult patients at Cleveland Clinic Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute with refractory NIH category II prostatitis managed with surgical intervention. PubMed was queried and all resulting articles were analyzed for relevance and parallel study designs.

Twelve subjects underwent endoscopic procedures. Two of 12 (16.7%) subjects had CBP recurrence with E. Coli at 12 and 60 months; both patients initially had prostatic stones. One patient with CBP recurrence developed a urethral stricture. Seven subjects were treated with nerve-sparing robotic radical prostatectomy of whom two had concomitant prostate cancer. Three subjects had prostate stones, two of which extended beyond the surgical capsule. E. coli was the isolated pathogen for six patients with two of these being multi-drug resistant (MDR) E. coli. One patient in this group experienced recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) despite the surgery. Scoping review of available articles consistently failed to mention definitive diagnosis of CBP with prostatic secretion cultures or even urine cultures prior to surgical intervention and no studies were found on the curative outcomes of surgical intervention.

Our study provides one of the first single-center retrospective case series of patients with antibiotic refractory NIH category II CBP managed with surgical intervention. Overall, rate of cure between all surgical modalities was 84% (n=16). When disease is confined to the surgical capsule, endoscopic management is likely sufficient. Radical prostatectomy expectedly increased rates of postoperative erectile dysfunction and stress urinary incontinence compared to endoscopic intervention. However, in patients with disease beyond the capsule and/or concomitant prostate cancer, prior endoscopic treatment, or life-threatening UTI, radical prostatectomy may be justified.

Translational andrology and urology. 2023 Oct 24 [Epub]

Peace U Orji, Prajit Khooblall, Jonathan Doolittle, Scott D Lundy, Daniel Shoskes

Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA., Cleveland Clinic Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute, Cleveland, OH, USA., Oklahoma Department of Urology, University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, OK, USA.