Automatic detection of prostate cancer grades and chronic prostatitis in biparametric MRI.

With emerging evidence to improve prostate cancer (PCa) screening, multiparametric magnetic prostate imaging is becoming an essential noninvasive component of the diagnostic routine. Computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) tools powered by deep learning can help radiologists interpret multiple volumetric images. In this work, our objective was to examine promising methods recently proposed in the multigrade prostate cancer detection task and to suggest practical considerations regarding model training in this context.

We collected 1647 fine-grained biopsy-confirmed findings, including Gleason scores and prostatitis, to form a training dataset. In our experimental framework for lesion detection, all models utilized 3D nnU-Net architecture that accounts for anisotropy in the MRI data. First, we explore an optimal range of b-values for diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) modality and its effect on the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa) and prostatitis using deep learning, as the optimal range is not yet clearly defined in this domain. Next, we propose a simulated multimodal shift as a data augmentation technique to compensate for the multimodal shift present in the data. Third, we study the effect of incorporating the prostatitis class alongside cancer-related findings at three different granularities of the prostate cancer class (coarse, medium, and fine) and its impact on the detection rate of the target csPCa. Furthermore, ordinal and one-hot encoded (OHE) output formulations were tested.

An optimal model configuration with fine class granularity (prostatitis included) and OHE has scored the lesion-wise partial Free-Response Receiver Operating Characteristic (FROC) area under the curve (AUC) of 1.94 (CI 95%: 1.76-2.11) and patient-wise ROC AUC of 0.874 (CI 95%: 0.793-0.938) in the detection of csPCa. Inclusion of the auxiliary prostatitis class has demonstrated a stable relative improvement in specificity at a false positive rate (FPR) of 1.0 per patient, with an increase of 3%, 7%, and 4% for coarse, medium, and fine class granularities.

This paper examines several configurations for model training in the biparametric MRI setup and proposes optimal value ranges. It also shows that the fine-grained class configuration, including prostatitis, is beneficial for detecting csPCa. The ability to detect prostatitis in all low-risk cancer lesions suggests the potential to improve the quality of the early diagnosis of prostate diseases. It also implies an improved interpretability of the results by the radiologist.

Computer methods and programs in biomedicine. 2023 May 26 [Epub ahead of print]

Oleksii Bashkanov, Marko Rak, Anneke Meyer, Lucas Engelage, Agron Lumiani, Rolf Muschter, Christian Hansen

Faculty of Computer Science and Research Campus STIMULATE, University of Magdeburg, Universitätsplatz 2, Magdeburg 39106, Germany. Electronic address: ., Faculty of Computer Science and Research Campus STIMULATE, University of Magdeburg, Universitätsplatz 2, Magdeburg 39106, Germany., ALTA Klinik, Bielefeld 33602, Germany.