Sexual dysfunction (SD), including erectile (ED) and ejaculatory dysfunction, is associated with diminished quality of life (QoL) in men with UCPPS (chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) and/or interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS)).
We sought to compare SD among male patients with UCPPS, other chronic pain conditions (positive controls, PC), and healthy controls (HC) without chronic pain, and to evaluate the association of comorbidities, psychosocial factors, and urologic factors of SD in all 3 groups.
Baseline data from male UCPPS participants, PC (irritable bowel syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia) and HC enrolled in the Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP) Research Network Epidemiology and Phenotyping Study were included in the analysis. Sexual function was assessed using the International Index of Erectile Function-Erectile Function Domain (IIEFEF) and Ejaculatory Function Scale (EFS). Male ED was defined as a composite IIEF-EF score <21. Higher EFS score indicated worse sexual dysfunction; no threshold to define SD was identified for the EFS. Multivariable logistic and linear regression was used to investigate associations of comorbidities, psychosocial factors, and urologic factors with ED and ejaculatory, respectively.
Comorbidities, genital pain, and psychosocial factors are associated with SD across the study population and male patients with UCPPS had a high prevalence of ED and greater ejaculatory dysfunction.
There were 191 males with UCPPS; 44 PC; and 182 HC. Males with UCPPS had worse SD compared to PC and HC including lower mean IIEF-EF scores, greater degree of ejaculatory dysfunction, and lower quality of sexual relationships. Among all 3 cohorts, depression, stress, and pain were associated with ED in univariable and multivariable analysis, as was diabetes mellitus. Pain in the genitalia, severity of urinary symptoms, depression, stress, and history of childhood sexual trauma were associated with ejaculatory dysfunction in univariable and multivariable analysis.
A multidisciplinary approach that addresses the identified risk factors for SD may improve overall QoL in males with UCPPS.
Our study is strengthened by its use of validated, patient-reported questionnaires and inclusion of healthy and positive controls. Our understanding of the role of IC in this study is limited because only 1 patient in the study had IC/BPS as a sole diagnosis.
When compared to healthy controls and patients with other chronic pain conditions, males with UCPPS experience higher degrees of SD, including erectile and ejaculatory dysfunction.
The journal of sexual medicine. 2022 Dec 01 [Epub]
Jeffrey C Loh-Doyle, Alisa J Stephens-Shields, Renee Rolston, Craig Newcomb, Bayley Taple, Siobhan Sutcliffe, Claire C Yang, Henry Lai, Larissa V Rodriguez
USC Institute of Urology USC/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center Keck School of Medicine University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA., Department of Biostatistics Epidemiology and Informatics Center for Clinical Epidemiology and BiostatisticsPerelman School of MedicineUniversity of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA., Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Women's Health Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA., Department of Biostatistics Epidemiology and Informatics Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics Perelman School of MedicineUniversity of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA., Department of Medical Social Sciences Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA., Division of Public Health Sciences Department of Surgery Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA., Department of Urology University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA., Departments of Surgery (Urologic Surgery) and Anesthesiology Washington University School of Medicine Division of Urologic Surgery, St Louis, MO, USA., USC Institute of UrologyUSC/Norris Comprehensive Cancer CenterKeck School of Medicine University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.