Comparing two different low-intensity shockwave therapy frequency protocols for nonbacterial chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: A two-arm, parallel-group randomized controlled trial.

Despite encouraging results, the optimal low-intensity shockwave therapy (LiST) protocol in patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) remains unknown. We conducted a two-arm, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial aiming to compare the efficacy and safety of six LiST sessions applied once or twice weekly.

Fifty patients with CP/CPPS type IIIb were randomly assigned to six LiST sessions once (Group A, n = 25) or twice weekly (Group B, n = 25). Both groups followed the same treatment protocol in terms of LiST application, impulses (5000/session), energy flux density (0.096 mJ/mm2 ) and frequency (5 Hz). Subsequently, all participants were evaluated at 1 and 3 months after completion of LiST protocol.

At the follow-up evaluations, LiST significantly improved the National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) total, pain and quality of life scores, as well as the International Index of Erectile Function-Erectile Domain (IIEF-ED) in both groups (p < .001 for all measures). Comparing between the two groups, no significant differences were demonstrated in the NIH-CPSI total, pain, urinary and quality of life scores, as well as in the International Prostate Symptom Score, IIEF-ED, and LiST-induced pain at both follow-up evaluations. Accordingly, no adverse events and no dropouts were observed in both groups.

Six sessions of LiST applied once weekly for 6 weeks or twice weekly for 3 weeks seem to be equally safe and effective in patients with CP/CPPS. Nevertheless, further studies are necessary, since LiST gradually gains its place for the management of CP/CPPS.

The Prostate. 2021 Apr 30 [Epub ahead of print]

Ioannis Mykoniatis, Nikolaos Pyrgidis, Dimitrios Kalyvianakis, Filimon Zilotis, Paraskevi Kapoteli, Agrippina Fournaraki, Dimitrios Hatzichristou

Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.