Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a disease with diverse clinical manifestations, such as pelvic pain or perineal pain. Although recent studies found several risk factors related to the pain severity of CP/CPPS patients, results were inconsistent. Here, we aimed to identify novel risk factors that are closely related to the severity of pain in patients with CP/CPPS.
We retrospectively collected the clinical records from patients with CP/CPPS from March 2019 to October 2019. The questionnaire was used to obtain related parameters, such as demographics, lifestyle, medical history, etc. To identify potential risk factors related to pain severity, we used the methods of univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Further, to confirm the relationship between these confirmed risk factors and CP/CPPS, we randomly divided CP/CPPS patients into the training and the validation cohorts with a ratio of 7:3. According to the co-efficient result of each risk factor calculated by multivariate logistic regression analysis, a predicting model of pain severity was established. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), discrimination plot, calibration plot, and decision curve analyses (DCA) were used to evaluate the clinical usage of the current model in both the training and validation cohorts.
A total of 272 eligible patients were enrolled. The univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis found that age [odds ratio (OR): 2.828, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.239-6.648, P = 0.004], holding back urine (OR: 2.413, 95% CI: 1.213-4.915, P = 0.005), anxiety or irritability (OR: 3.511, 95% CI: 2.034-6.186, P < 0.001), contraception (OR: 2.136, 95% CI:1.161-3.014, P = 0.029), and smoking status (OR: 1.453, 95% CI: 1.313-5.127, P = 0.013) were the risk factors of pain severity. We then established a nomogram model, to test whether these factors could be used to predict the pain severity of CP/CPPS patients in turn. Finally, ROC, DCA, and calibration analyses proved the significance and stability of this nomogram, further confirmed that these factors were closely related to the pain severity of CP/CPPS patients.
We identify age, holding back urine, anxiety or irritability, contraception, and smoking are risk factors closely related to the pain severity in patients with CP/CPPS. Our results provide novel inspirations for clinicians to design the personalized treatment plan for individual CP/CPPS patient who has suffered different encounters.
BMC urology. 2020 Oct 07*** epublish ***
Jing Chen, Haomin Zhang, Di Niu, Hu Li, Kun Wei, Li Zhang, Shuiping Yin, Longfei Liu, Xiansheng Zhang, Meng Zhang, Chaozhao Liang
Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, People's Republic of China., The Second Clinical College of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, People's Republic of China., Department of Urology, b Reproductive Medicine Center, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, People's Republic of China., Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, People's Republic of China. ., Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, People's Republic of China. .