Prostatitis, the Great Mimicker of Prostate Cancer: Can We Differentiate Them Quantitatively With Multiparametric MRI?

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic performance of semiquantitative and quantitative pharmacokinetic parameters and quantitative apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values obtained from prostate multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) to differentiate prostate cancer (PCa) and prostatitis objectively. MATERIALS AND METHODS. We conducted a retrospective review of patients with biopsy-proven PCa or prostatitis who underwent mpMRI study between January 2015 and February 2018. Mean ADC, forward volume transfer constant (Ktrans), reverse volume transfer constant (kep), plasma volume fraction (Vp), extravascular extracellular space volume fraction (Ve), and time to peak (TTP) values were calculated for both lesions and contralateral normal prostate tissue. Signal intensity-time curves were analyzed. Lesion-to-normal prostate tissue ratios of pharmacokinetic parameters were also calculated. The diagnostic accuracy and cutoff points of all parameters were analyzed to differentiate PCa from prostatitis. RESULTS. A total of 138 patients (94 with PCa and 44 with prostatitis) were included in the study. Statistically, ADC, quantitative pharmacokinetic parameters (Ktrans, kep, Ve, and Vp), their lesion-to-normal prostate tissue ratios, and TTP values successfully differentiated PCa and prostatitis. Surprisingly, we found that Ve values were significantly higher in prostatitis lesions. The combination of these parameters had 92.7% overall diagnostic accuracy. ADC, kep, and TTP made up the most successful combination for differential diagnosis. Analysis of the signal intensity-time curves showed mostly type 2 and type 3 enhancement curve patterns for patients with PCa. Type 3 curves were not seen in any prostatitis cases. CONCLUSION. Quantitative analysis of mpMRI differentiates PCa from prostatitis with high sensitivity and specificity, appears to have significant potential, and may improve diagnostic accuracy. In addition, evaluating these parameters does not cause any extra burden to the patients.

AJR. American journal of roentgenology. 2020 Sep 09 [Epub ahead of print]

Aycan Uysal, Ali D Karaosmanoğlu, Musturay Karcaaltıncaba, Deniz Akata, Bulent Akdogan, Dilek E Baydar, Mustafa N Ozmen

Department of Radiology, Gulhane Training and Research Hospital, General Dr Tevfik Saglam St, 06010 Kecioren, Ankara, Turkey., Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey., Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey., Department of Urology, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey., Department of Pathology, Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey.