Prostatic calcifications are associated with a more severe symptom burden in men with type II chronic bacterial prostatitis.

Although prostatic calculi/calcifications are encountered frequently in the urological practice, little is known about the incidence of such lesions, their mechanism of formation, their relationship to other prostate conditions and their clinical significance. The purpose of this study is to describe the characteristics and to investigate the clinical significance of prostatic calcifications (PCs) in patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP).

This study was conducted between 01/02/2013 and 20/02/2018. The patient population for this study included subjects with or without PCs and a confirmed diagnosis of NIH category II Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis (CBP). Demographics and clinical history of each assessed patient were reviewed. Eligible patients underwent prostatic ultrasound with post-void residual measurement, and the Meares-Stamey "4-glass" test. Symptom severity was measured using the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) and the International Prostatic Symptoms Score (IPSS). Antimicrobials were administered to confirmed cases of CBP according to the results of susceptibility tests. After four weeks off-therapy, the NIH-CPSI and IPSS tests were repeated. Variables were compared between patients with and without prostatic calcifications.

Ninety-five CBP patients were included in the study. According to the presence of PCs detected by ultrasound examination, patients were divided into two groups: 41 had PCs (group 1) and 54 didn't (group 2). No significant between-group baseline differences were found regarding age, marital status, prostate volume, the proportion of common CBP pathogens. Concerning highrisk sexual behavior, a significantly higher number of men with PCs practiced anal penetration. Moreover, a significantly higher number of men with PCs had a history of chronic prostatitis relapsing episodes. Microbiological eradication and the complete resolution of clinical symptoms occurred in similar proportions between the two groups. However, intergroup analysis resulted in significantly higher scores of the NIH-CPSI test in group 1, both at the pre-therapy and at the post-therapy time points. Conversely, no IPSS score differences between groups 1 and 2 were found at both pre- and post-therapy time points.

Prostatic calcifications do not seem to influence the microbiological outcome of antibacterial treatment. However, the CBP symptoms appear to be more severe in carriers of prostatic calcifications, either before or after antibacterial therapy.

Archivio italiano di urologia, andrologia : organo ufficiale [di] Societa italiana di ecografia urologica e nefrologica. 2019 Jul 02*** epublish ***

Konstantinos Stamatiou, Vittorio Magri, Gianpaolo Perletti, Alberto Trinchieri, Richard Lacroix, Nektaria Rekleiti, Hippocrates Moschouris

Tzaneio Hospital, Piraeus. .