Prostatic calculi (PC) are frequently detected at computed tomography or ultrasound in men attending the health center or the urology outpatient department. PC have attracted more attention from urologists, but the clinical significance of PC is unknown.
To review the available literature on the effects of PC on prostatic diseases and sexual function in men.
Relevant clinical trials were identified by searching the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases. Results were classified, summarized, and analyzed.
Transabdominal and rectal ultrasonography; urodynamics analysis; International Prostate Symptom Score; pathologic examination of prostatic tissue; prostate-specific antigen; and expressed prostatic secretion.
PC can not only prolong the duration of bothersome symptoms but also decrease the cure rate of antibacterial therapy in patients with chronic prostatitis. Patients with PC usually have more severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), and some studies reported that moderate to marked PC are a predisposing factor for moderate to severe LUTS. Studies also reported that the serum level prostate-specific antigen is not influenced by PC. In addition, the presence of PC is not associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. However, the correlation between PC in the peripheral zone and prostate cancer is statistically significant. In addition, the association between PC and Gleason scores is controversial. Some novel studies suggested that PC might play an important role in sexual impairment in middle-age men or men with chronic pelvic pain syndrome or chronic prostatitis. Recently, PC were found to increase the incidence of severe LUTS, urinary retention, and hematospermia after transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy.
PC can aggravate LUTS, chronic prostatitis, and sexual dysfunction in men, but the association between PC and prostate cancer is still controversial. Cao J-J, Huang W, Wu H-S, et al. Prostatic Calculi: Do They Matter? Sex Med Rev 2017;X:XXX-XXX.
Sexual medicine reviews. 2017 Nov 17 [Epub ahead of print]
Jun-Jie Cao, Wei Huang, Hong-Shen Wu, Min Cao, Yan Zhang, Xiao-Dong Jin
Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University, School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China., Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University, School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China. Electronic address: .