Non-curvature penile deformities are prevalent and bothersome manifestations of Peyronie's disease (PD), but the quantitative metrics that are currently used to describe these deformities are inadequate and non-standardized, presenting a barrier to clinical research and patient care.
To introduce erect penile volume (EPV) and percentage of erect penile volume loss (percent EPVL) as novel metrics that provide detailed quantitative information about non-curvature penile deformities and to study the feasibility and reliability of three-dimensional (3D) photography for measurement of quantitative penile parameters.
We constructed seven penis models simulating deformities found in PD. The 3D photographs of each model were captured in triplicate by four observers using a 3D camera. Computer software was used to generate automated measurements of EPV, percent EPVL, penile length, minimum circumference, maximum circumference, and angle of curvature. The automated measurements were statistically compared with measurements obtained using water-displacement experiments, a tape measure, and a goniometer.
Accuracy of 3D photography for average measurements of all parameters compared with manual measurements; inter-test, intra-observer, and inter-observer reliabilities of EPV and percent EPVL measurements as assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient.
The 3D images were captured in a median of 52 seconds (interquartile range = 45-61). On average, 3D photography was accurate to within 0.3% for measurement of penile length. It overestimated maximum and minimum circumferences by averages of 4.2% and 1.6%, respectively; overestimated EPV by an average of 7.1%; and underestimated percent EPVL by an average of 1.9%. All inter-test, inter-observer, and intra-observer intraclass correlation coefficients for EPV and percent EPVL measurements were greater than 0.75, reflective of excellent methodologic reliability.
By providing highly descriptive and reliable measurements of penile parameters, 3D photography can empower researchers to better study volume-loss deformities in PD and enable clinicians to offer improved clinical assessment, communication, and documentation.
This is the first study to apply 3D photography to the assessment of PD and to accurately measure the novel parameters of EPV and percent EPVL. This proof-of-concept study is limited by the lack of data in human subjects, which could present additional challenges in obtaining reliable measurements.
EPV and percent EPVL are novel metrics that can be quickly, accurately, and reliably measured using computational analysis of 3D photographs and can be useful in describing non-curvature volume-loss deformities resulting from PD. Margolin EJ, Mlynarczyk CM, Muhall JP, et al. Three-Dimensional Photography for Quantitative Assessment of Penile Volume-Loss Deformities in Peyronie's Disease. J Sex Med 2017;XX:XXX-XXX.
The journal of sexual medicine. 2017 Apr 28 [Epub ahead of print]
Ezra J Margolin, Carrie M Mlynarczyk, John P Mulhall, Doron S Stember, Peter J Stahl
Department of Urology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address: ., Department of Urology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA., Department of Urology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA., Department of Urology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.