Endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs) can have a harmful effect on the human body's endocrine system and thus adversely affect the development, reproduction, neurological, cardiovascular, and immune systems and metabolism in humans and wildlife. According to the World Health Organization, EDCs are mostly man-made and found ubiquitously in our daily lives, notably in pesticides, metals, and additives or contaminants in food and personal care products. Human exposure occurs through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a proven EDC capable of mimicking or blocking receptors and altering hormone concentrations and metabolism. Although consumed in low doses, it can stimulate cellular responses and affect the body's functions. In humans, exposure to BPA has been correlated with the onset or development of several diseases. This literature review aimed to verify the effects of BPA on human male infertility using the most recently published literature. Thus, this review allowed us to conclude that this compound seems to have harmful effects on human male fertility, causing changes in hormonal and semen characteristics. However, these conclusions lack more robust and reproducible scientific studies. Even so, and since male infertility prevalence is increasing, preventive measures must be taken to ensure male fertility.
International journal of molecular sciences. 2023 Aug 04*** epublish ***
Mafalda Presunto, Melissa Mariana, Margarida Lorigo, Elisa Cairrao
FCS-UBI, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Beira Interior, 6200-506 Covilhã, Portugal.