Genitourinary anomalies constitute a large proportion of congenital malformations. However seminal tract anomalies, particularly ejaculatory duct (ED) anomalies are very rare and little information exists on the topic. We are reporting a very rare case of bilateral ectopic EDs opening in the bladder trigone in a 33-year-old gentleman presenting for evaluation for primary infertility. The patient's semen analysis showed low-ejaculate-volume, fructose negative, acidic pH and azoospermia. His hormonal profile was normal. Cystoscopy revealed an empty posterior urethra, and the verumontanum and the openings of the EDs could not be identified in the posterior urethra. The ED openings were found inside the bladder trigone. Vasography combined with cystoscopy confirmed the opening of the ED in the trigone following Intra-vasal injection of methylene blue. Our patient had a successful intracytoplasmic sperm injection using testicular spermatozoa that resulted in a healthy baby boy. We also did a formal literature review through PUBMED, MEDLINE and Google Scholar with the search term (ectopic ED). Search results were filtered to exclude vas deferens ectopia. Our literature search revealed five studies comprising 24 patients with ectopic EDs. Mean age at diagnosis was 29.88 ± 12.88 years. The most common presenting symptom was hemospermia. The ectopic EDs most commonly opened in a midline cyst (21 cases), bladder trigone (1 case), or bladder neck (1 case). The most common management used for symptomatic patients with ectopic EDs opening in the midline cyst was through transurethral fenestration. In conclusion, ectopic ED openings in the bladder trigone are very rare. Management varies by case depending on the presentation, anatomy of underlying anomaly, associated complication/s and desire for fertility.
Andrologia. 2022 Nov 09 [Epub ahead of print]
Ahmed Albakr, Mohamed Arafa, Ahmad Majzoub, Walid El Ansari, Mamon Qasem, Sami Al Said, Haitham Elbardisi
Urology Department, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar., Urology department, Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar, Doha, Qatar., Department of Radiology, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.