Testicular Fine-Needle Aspiration for Sperm Retrieval in Azoospermia: A Small Step toward the Technical Standardization.

The aim was to describe our preliminary experience performing testicular fine-needle aspiration (TEFNA) with a larger needle in infertile patients with obstructive azoospermia, and to provide a systematic literature review of the different testicular sperm aspiration techniques, according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement recommendations.

We prospectively collected data between March 2017 and June 2018. All men underwent bilateral TEFNA under analgo-sedation, using a larger disposable 18-gauge butterfly needle with 60 mL Luer-Lock syringe attached to it.

Thirty consecutive patients were enrolled. Median operative time was 16 minutes (interquartile range [IQR]: 12-30 minutes). No intraoperative complications occurred. Two/thirty patients (6.7%) reported postoperative adverse events: 1 patient had prolonged orchialgia, 1 patient presented scrotal hematoma. Successful sperm retrieval was found in 28/30 cases (93.3%). Median sperm concentration was 0.05 ×10⁶/mL (IQR: 0.001-0.1 ×10⁶/mL). Median total sperm motility was 10% (IQR: 0%-15%). In 20/30 men (66.7%) sperm retrieved was used for fresh intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycle, in 8/30 (26.7%) sperm cryopreservation was necessary, because on the day of sperm retrieval the female resulted not responder to ovarian stimulation. In this cases mean number of 3 (IQR: 1-4) bio system straws was cryopreserved.

TEFNA with 18-gauge needle proved to be a feasible, safe and effective treatment, even if future prospective studies will be addressed to clarify what type of azoospermia benefits from this procedure, and if a larger needle permits to improve Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) outcomes.

The world journal of men's health. 2019 Jan [Epub]

Gianmartin Cito, Maria Elisabetta Coccia, Francesco Sessa, Andrea Cocci, Pierangelo Verrienti, Rita Picone, Rossella Fucci, Luciana Criscuoli, Sergio Serni, Marco Carini, Alessandro Natali

Department of Urology, Careggi Hospital, University of Florence, Florence, Italy., Assisted Reproductive Technology Center, Careggi Hospital, University of Florence, Florence, Italy., Department of Urology, Careggi Hospital, University of Florence, Florence, Italy. .