During the last decades the study of male infertility and the introduction of the assisted reproductive techniques (ARTs) has allowed to understand that normal sperm parameters do not always predict fertilization. Sperm genetic components could play an important role in the early stages of embryonic development. Based on these acquisitions, several epigenetic investigations have been developed on spermatozoa, with the aim of understanding the multifactorial etiology of male infertility and of showing whether embryonic development may be influenced by sperm epigenetic abnormalities. This article reviews the possible epigenetic modifications of spermatozoa and their effects on male fertility, embryonic development and ART outcome. It focuses mainly on sperm DNA methylation, chromatin remodeling, histone modifications and RNAs.
The world journal of men's health. 2018 Nov 27 [Epub ahead of print]
Filippo Giacone, Rossella Cannarella, Laura M Mongioì, Angela Alamo, Rosita A Condorelli, Aldo E Calogero, Sandro La Vignera
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy., Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy. .