Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the most common sexual dysfunction disease in adult males. ED can be caused by many factors, such as vascular disease, neuropathy, metabolic disturbances, psychosocial causes, and side effects of medications. Although current oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors can achieve a certain effect, they cause temporary dilatation of blood vessels with no curative treatment effects. Emerging targeted technologies, such as stem cell therapy, protein therapy, and low-intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy (Li-ESWT), are being used to achieve more natural and long-lasting effects in treating ED. However, the development and application of these therapeutic methods are still in their infancy, and their pharmacological pathways and specific mechanisms have not been fully discovered. This article reviews the preclinical basic research progress of stem cells, proteins, and Li-ESWT therapy, as well as the current status of clinical application of Li-ESWT therapy.
Investigative and clinical urology. 2023 Jul [Epub]
Doo Yong Chung, Ji-Kan Ryu, Guo Nan Yin
National Research Center for Sexual Medicine and Department of Urology, Inha University College of Medicine, Incheon, Korea., National Research Center for Sexual Medicine and Department of Urology, Inha University College of Medicine, Incheon, Korea. .