Penile erection implicates arterial inflow, sinusoidal relaxation and corporoveno-occlusive function. By far the most widely recognized vascular etiologies responsible for organic erectile dysfunction can be divided into arterial insufficiency, corporoveno-occlusive dysfunction or mixed type, with corporoveno-occlusive dysfunction representing the most common finding. In arteriogenic erectile dysfunction, corpora cavernosa show lower oxygen tension, leading to a diminished volume of cavernosal smooth muscle and consequential corporoveno-occlusive dysfunction. Current studies support the contention that corporoveno-occlusive dysfunction is an effect rather than the cause of erectile dysfunction. Surgical interventions have consisted primarily of penile revascularization surgery for arterial insufficiency and penile venous surgery for corporoveno-occlusive dysfunction, whatever the mechanism. However, the surgical effectiveness remained debatable and unproven, mostly owing to the lack of consistent hemodynamic assessment, standardized select patient and validated outcome measures, as well as various surgical procedures. Penile vascular surgery has been disclaimed to be the treatment of choice based on the currently available guidelines. However, reports on penile revascularization surgery support its utility in treating arterial insufficiency in otherwise healthy patients aged <55 years with erectile dysfunction of late attributable to arterial occlusive disease. Furthermore, it is noteworthy that penile venous surgery might be beneficial for selected patients with corporoveno-occlusive dysfunction, especially with a better understanding of the innovated venous anatomy of the penis. Penile vascular surgery might remain a viable alternative for the treatment of erectile dysfunction, and could have found its niche in the possibility of obtaining spontaneous, unaided and natural erection.
International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association. 2019 Dec 07 [Epub ahead of print]
Cheng-Hsing Hsieh, Geng-Long Hsu, Shang-Jen Chang, Stephen Shei-Dei Yang, Shih-Ping Liu, Ju-Ton Hsieh
Department of Urology, Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, Taipei, Taiwan., Microsurgical Potency Reconstruction and Research Center, Hsu's Andrology, Taipei, Taiwan., Department of Urology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.