Comparative Effectivenes of Newer Medications for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Attributed to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Alpha-blockers (ABs) and 5-alpha reductase inhibitors have an established role in treating male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) attributed to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Recently, newer drugs have shown promise for this indication.

To assess the comparative effectiveness and adverse effects (AEs) of newer drugs to treat LUTS attributed to BPH through a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Ovid MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Ovid Embase bibliographic databases (through June 2016) were hand searches for references of relevant studies. Eligible studies included randomized controlled trials published in English of newer ABs, antimuscarinics, a beta-3 adrenoceptor agonist, phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitors, or combination therapy with one of these medications as an active comparator. Observational studies of the same agents with a duration ≥1 yr that reported AEs were also included.

We synthesized evidence from 43 randomized controlled trials as well as five observational studies. Based on improvement of mean International Prostate Symptom Score and quality of life scores, the effectiveness of the newer ABs was not different from the older ABs (moderate strength of evidence [SOE]), but had more AEs (low SOE). Antimuscarinics/AB combination therapy had similar outcomes as AB monotherapy (all moderate SOE), but often had more AEs. Phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitors alone or in combination with ABs had similar or inferior outcomes than ABs alone. Evidence was insufficient for the beta-3 adrenoceptor agonist. For all newer agents, the evidence was generally insufficient to assess long-term efficacy, prevention of symptom progression, or AEs.

None of the drugs or drug combinations newly used to treat LUTS attributed to BPH showed outcomes superior to traditional AB treatment. Given the lack of superior outcomes, the studies' short time-horizon, and less assurance of their safety, their current value in treating LUTS attributable to BPH appears low.

In this paper, we reviewed the evidence of newer drugs to treat men with urinary problems attributable to an enlarged prostate. We found none of the new drugs to be better but there was more concern about side effects.

European urology. 2016 Oct 04 [Epub ahead of print]

Philipp Dahm, Michelle Brasure, Roderick MacDonald, Carin M Olson, Victoria A Nelson, Howard A Fink, Bruce Rwabasonga, Michael C Risk, Timothy J Wilt

Minneapolis VA Health Care System, Minneapolis, MN, USA. Electronic address: ., Division of Health Policy and Management, University of Minnesota, School of Public Health, Minneapolis, MN, USA., Minneapolis VA Health Care System, Minneapolis, MN, USA., Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center, Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Healthcare System, Minneapolis, MN, USA., Minneapolis VA Health Care System, Minneapolis, MN, USA; Department of Urology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA., Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Healthcare System, Minneapolis, MN, USA; Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

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