Prostatic vascular damage induced by cigarette smoking as a risk factor for recovery after holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP)

To evaluate the relationship between prostatic vessel changes induced by cigarette smoking and the perioperative outcome of holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP).

A total of 268 postoperative patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) were prospectively analysed in our department. They were divided into two groups (smokers and non-smokers) according to smoking history. Transrectal colour Doppler ultrasound was performed to evaluate the prostate vascular changes. Pathologically, HE staining, CD31 and CD34 were analysed in prostatic section chips. Furthermore, postoperative outcomes were determined during a 6-month follow-up period.

The preoperative prostate volume was significantly decreased in smoking patients (P = 0.04). CPI was significantly lower in smoking BPH patients (P < 0.01), whereas RI was significantly increased in smokers compared with non-smokers (P < 0.01). Histological assays revealed elevated CD34 in the smoking BPH individuals presenting an increased number of microvessels. The HoLEP duration was increased in smokers. Interestingly, we identified significantly increased overactive bladder syndrome score (OABSS) and decreased Qmax in smoking individuals during the 6-month follow-up with no difference being observed preoperatively. However, no significant difference between the groups was observed for the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS).

The significantly lower CPI and higher RI values in smoking BPH patients indicated the presence of considerable vascular damage in these subjects. Moreover, cigarette smoking extended the surgical duration and prolonged the recovery period of overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome. Thus, integrated treatment should be suggested for various BPH individuals.

Oncotarget. 2016 Oct 09 [Epub ahead of print]

Huan Xu, Chong Liu, Meng Gu, Yanbo Chen, Zhikang Cai, Qi Chen, Zhong Wang

Department of Urology, Shanghai 9th People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.