INTRODUCTION - Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of disorders that includes insulin resistance, central obesity, arterial hypertension and hyperlipidaemia. These disorders can have implications for the genitourinary apparatus.
OBJECTIVE - To conduct a review on the pathophysiological aspects that explain the relationship between metabolic syndrome and sexual dysfunction, lower urinary tract syndrome, prostate cancer and stone disease.
METHODS - We performed a qualitative, narrative literature review through a literature search on PubMed of articles published between 1997 and 2015, using the terms pathophysiology, metabolic syndrome, endothelial dysfunction, lipotoxicity, mitochondrial dysfunction, kidney stones, hypogonadism, erectile dysfunction, lower urinary tract syndrome and prostate cancer.
SYNTHESIS OF THE EVIDENCE - Metabolic syndrome constitutes an established complex of symptoms, defined as the presence of insulin resistance, central obesity, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia. Endothelial dysfunction secondary to lipotoxicity generates an inflammatory state, which involves renal cell metabolism, vascularisation of the pelvis and androgen production. These facts explain the relationship between metabolic syndrome, nephrolithiasis, lower urinary tract syndrome, hypogonadism and erectile dysfunction in men.
CONCLUSIONS - Strategies such as proper diet, regular exercise, insulin treatment, testosterone-replacement therapy, therapy with antioxidants and free-radical inhibitors and urological treatments classically used for lower urinary tract syndrome have shown promising results in this syndrome.
Actas urologicas espanolas. 2015 Nov 14 [Epub ahead of print]
J Sáenz Medina, J Carballido Rodríguez
Servicio de Urología, Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro, Madrid, España; Departamento de Cirugía, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid, España. Servicio de Urología, Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro, Madrid, España; Departamento de Cirugía, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, España.