Identifying biomarkers of prostatic inflammation has been a question of great interest in the development of anti-inflammatory pharmacotherapy for lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH). Systemic inflammation and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) have been linked with prostatic inflammation. This study set out to develop a diagnostic model for prostatic inflammation using clinical and laboratory parameters.
We included LUTS/BPH patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate. The severity of prostatic inflammation was determined by pathological review. Clinical manifestations and preoperative laboratory test results were recorded. We used LASSO regression with 10-fold cross-validation to select variables with the most diagnostic value of prostatic inflammation. Furthermore, we used multivariable logistic regression analysis to develop the diagnostic model, presented in a nomogram. The discrimination, calibration of the post-LASSO diagnostic model, and the model supplemented with clinical parameters were assessed. Decision curve analysis was performed.
A total of 164 patients were included. Of all patients, 97 (59.1%) had no or mild prostatic inflammation, and 67 (40.9%) had moderate to severe prostatic inflammation. A higher peripheral white blood cell count, higher peripheral lymphocyte count, lower free/total (f/t) PSA ratio, and acute urinary retention history were associated with a higher risk of moderate to severe prostatic inflammation. Peripheral lymphocyte count and f/t PSA ratio were selected by the LASSO method and entered into the nomogram. The post-LASSO diagnostic model had an AUC of 0.756 (95% CI: 0.684-0.829) and good calibration. The addition of clinical parameters failed to show incremental diagnostic value. The decision curve analysis demonstrated that the post-LASSO laboratory nomogram was clinically useful.
Our findings demonstrated that peripheral lymphocyte count and f/t PSA ratio appear to be reliable diagnostic markers, based on which we build a clinically useful nomogram for prostatic inflammation. This diagnostic model could facilitate the development of anti-inflammatory pharmacotherapy for LUTS/BPH. Before this model is adopted in clinical practice, future validation is needed to determine its clinical utility.
Frontiers in pharmacology. 2020 Apr 30*** epublish ***
Xinyang Liao, Zhuang Tang, Jianzhong Ai, Hang Xu, Shiyu Zhang, Liangren Liu, Shi Qiu, Ping Tan, Yu Fan, Lu Yang, Qiang Wei
Department of Urology, Institute of Urology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China., Department of Urology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Guangzhou, China.