Pathophysiology of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Benign Prostatic Enlargement: A Mini-Review.

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) belong to the most frequent diseases in ageing men. Beyond the 6th decade of life, more than 30% of men suffer from moderate to severe LUTS requiring intervention. The pathophysiology of BPH/BPE is still incompletely understood. The dominant role of the androgen system and the androgen receptor is well defined. Androgen receptors are expressed in BPH tissue in which they are activated by the potent androgen dihydrotestosterone. Synthesis of dihydrotestosterone is under control of the 5α-reductase enzyme, activity of which is antagonized by finasteride and dutasteride. More recently, the impact of prostatic inflammation and metabolic parameters particularly for the development of BPE and LUTS has increasingly been recognized. A better understanding of the pathophysiology is a prerequisite for the development of novel, more effective medical treatment options.

Gerontology. 2019 Apr 03 [Epub ahead of print]

Stephan Madersbacher, Natalie Sampson, Zoran Culig

Department of Urology, Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna, Austria, ., Department of Urology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.