This study investigates the multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) appearance of different types of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and whether quantitative mpMRI is effective in differentiating between prostate cancer (PCa) and BPH.
Patients (n = 60) with confirmed PCa underwent preoperative 3T MRI. T2-weighted, multi-echo T2-weighted, diffusion weighted and dynamic contrast enhanced images (DCE) were obtained prior to undergoing prostatectomy. PCa and BPH (cystic, glandular or stromal) were identified in the transition zone and matched with MRI. Quantitative mpMRI metrics: T2, ADC and DCE-MRI parameters using an empirical mathematical model were measured.
ADC values were significantly lower (p < 0.001) in PCa compared to all BPH types and can differentiate between PCa and BPH with high accuracy (AUC = 0.87, p < 0.001). T2 values were significantly lower (p < 0.001) in PCa compared to cystic BPH only, while glandular (p = 0.27) and stromal BPH (p = 0.99) showed no significant difference from PCa. BPH mimics PCa in the transition zone on DCE-MRI evidenced by no significant difference between them. mpMRI values of glandular (ADC = 1.31 ± 0.22 µm2/ms, T2 = 115.7 ± 37.3 ms) and cystic BPH (ADC = 1.92 ± 0.43 µm2/ms, T2 = 242.8 ± 117.9 ms) are significantly different. There was no significant difference in ADC (p = 0.72) and T2 (p = 0.46) between glandular and stromal BPH.
Multiparametric MRI and specifically quantitative ADC values can be used for differentiating PCa and BPH, improving PCa diagnosis in the transition zone. However, DCE-MRI metrics are not effective in distinguishing PCa and BPH. Glandular BPH are not hyperintense on ADC and T2 as previously thought and have similar quantitative mpMRI measurements to stromal BPH. Glandular and cystic BPH appear differently on mpMRI and are histologically different.
Abdominal radiology (New York). 2019 Apr 06 [Epub ahead of print]
Aritrick Chatterjee, Alexander J Gallan, Dianning He, Xiaobing Fan, Devkumar Mustafi, Ambereen Yousuf, Tatjana Antic, Gregory S Karczmar, Aytekin Oto
Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, Chicago, IL, 60637, USA., Department of Pathology, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, Chicago, IL, USA., Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, Chicago, IL, 60637, USA. .