Accurate diagnosis of clinically significant prostate cancer is essential in identifying patients who should be offered treatment with curative intent. Modifications to the Gleason grading system in recent years show that accurate grading and reporting at needle biopsy can improve identification of clinically significant prostate cancers. Extracapsular extension of prostate cancer has been demonstrated to be an adverse prognostic factor with greater risk of metastatic spread than organ-confined disease. Tumor volume may be an independent prognostic factor and should be considered in conjunction with other factors. Multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (MP-MRI) has become an increasingly important tool in the diagnosis and characterization of prostate cancer. MP-MRI allows T2-weighted (T2W) anatomical imaging to be combined with functional and physiological assessment. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has shown greater sensitivity, specificity and negative predictive value compared to prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing and T2W imaging alone and has a more positive correlation with Gleason score and tumour volume. Dynamic gadolinium contrast-enhanced (DCE) imaging can exhibit difficulties in distinguishing prostatitis from malignancy in the peripheral zone, and between benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and malignancies in the transition zone (TZ). Computer aided diagnosis utilizes software to aid radiologists in detecting and diagnosing abnormalities from diagnostic imaging. New techniques of quantitative MRI, such as VERDICT MRI use tissue-specific factors to delineate different cellular and microstructural phenotypes, characterizing tissue properties with greater detail. Proton MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is a more technically challenging imaging modality than DCE and DWI MRI. Over the last decade, choline and prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positron emission tomography (PET) have developed as better tools for staging than conventional imaging. While hyperpolarized MRI shows promise in improving the imaging and differentiation of benign and malignant lesions there is further work required. Accurate reading and interpretation of diagnostic investigations is key to accurate identification of abnormal areas requiring biopsy, sparing those in whom benign or indolent disease can be managed by non-invasive means. Embracing and advancing existing technologies is essential in furthering this process.
Translational andrology and urology. 2018 Sep [Epub]
Catherine Elizabeth Lovegrove, Mudit Matanhelia, Jagpal Randeva, David Eldred-Evans, Henry Tam, Saiful Miah, Mathias Winkler, Hashim U Ahmed, Taimur T Shah
Division of Surgery, Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, London, UK.