Lower urinary tract function is modulated by neural, vascular and urethral and bladder structural elements. The pathophysiological mechanisms of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) encompass prostate enlargement, alterations in urethra histological structure bladder fibrosis and alterations in pelvic neuronal and vascular networks, The complex pathophysiological relationship between testosterone (T) deficiency (TD) and the constellations LUTS, and metabolic dysfunction manifested in the metabolic syndrome (Met S) remains poorly understood. TD has emerged as one the potential targets by which Met S may contribute to the onset and development as well as worsening of LUTS. Because it has been recognized that treatment of men with Met S with T therapy ameliorates Met S components, it is postulated that T therapy may represent a therapeutic target in improving LUTS. Furthermore, the effect of TD on the prostate remains unclear, and often debatable. It is believed that T exclusively promotes prostate growth, however recent evidence has strongly contradicted this belief. The true relationship between benign prostatic hyperplasia, TD, and LUTS remains elusive and further research will be required to clarify the role of T in both benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) and LUTS as a whole. Although there is conflicting evidence about the benefits of T therapy in men with BPH and LUTS, the current body of literature supports the safety of using this therapy in men with enlarged prostate. As the population afflicted with obesity epidemic continues to age, the number of men suffering from Met S and LUTS together is expected to increase.
The world journal of men's health. 2018 Jul 03 [Epub ahead of print]
Abdulmaged M Traish, Vanessa Johansen
Department of Urology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA. ., Department of Urology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.