Evidence from well-designed studies documenting the benefit of testosterone replacement therapy as a function of patient demographic and clinical characteristics is lacking.
To determine demographic and clinical predictors of treatment outcomes in hypogonadal men with low sex drive, low energy, and/or erectile dysfunction.
Post hoc analysis of a randomized, multicenter, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, 16-week study of 715 hypogonadal men (mean age = 55.3 years, age range = 19-92 years) presenting with low sex drive and/or low energy who received placebo or testosterone solution 2% for 12 weeks.
Two levels defined patient-reported improvement (PRI) in sex drive or energy: level 1 was at least "a little better" and level 2 was at least "much better" in energy or sex drive on the Patient Global Impression of Improvement at study end point. PRI in erectile function was stratified by erectile dysfunction severity at baseline as measured by the erectile function domain of the International Index for Erectile Function: mild at baseline (change of 2), moderate at baseline (change of 5), and severe at baseline (change of 7). Associations of demographic and clinical characteristics with PRI were calculated with stepwise forward multiple logistic regression analysis. Odds ratios represented the likelihood of PRI in symptoms among variable categories.
Higher levels of end-point testosterone were associated with higher rates of PRI (at levels 1 and 2) in sex drive and energy (P < .001 for the two comparisons). Lower baseline testosterone levels were associated with higher rates of level 1 PRI in sex drive (P = .028); and classic hypogonadism (vs non-classic hypogonadism) was associated with higher rates of level 2 PRI in sex drive (P = .005) and energy (P = .006).
When assessing the potential for improvements in men with testosterone deficiency using patient-reported outcome questionnaires, possible predictors of treatment outcomes to consider include the etiology of hypogonadism and testosterone levels (baseline and end point).
The journal of sexual medicine. 2016 Jun 18 [Epub ahead of print]
Frederick Wu, Michael Zitzmann, Darell Heiselman, Craig Donatucci, Jack Knorr, Ankur B Patel, Kraig Kinchen
Centre for Endocrinology and Diabetes, Institute of Human Development, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK. Electronic address: ., Center for Reproductive Medicine and Andrology, Muenster, Germany., Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA., Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA., Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA., Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA., Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA.