The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) has increased in the United States over the past 40 years. These conditions, long linked with many cardiovascular complications, have recently been linked with androgen or testosterone deficiency in men.
Several pathophysiologic hypotheses exist regarding this association, with the most widely reported a relationship to obesity and insulin resistance Several randomized trials have confirmed that when testosterone replacement therapy is given to patients with T2DM, MetS, or both, metabolic parameters such as waist circumference, hemoglobin A1c , and systolic blood pressure are significantly reduced by up to 11 cm, 1 9%, and 23 mm Hg, respectively This has not, however, resulted in improved cardiovascular outcomes, as evidenced in studies that found increased rates of cardiovascular events following testosterone replacement therapy In this review, we summarize the relevant literature regarding the pathophysiology and management of androgen deficiency in men with T2DM, MetS, or both
Pharmacotherapy 2015 Aug [Epub]
Shawn Riser Taylor, Lindsy M Meadowcraft, Bobbie Williamson
Wingate University School of Pharmacy, Hendersonville, North Carolina , Wingate University School of Pharmacy, Hendersonville, North Carolina , Wingate University School of Pharmacy, Hendersonville, North Carolina