Calcium and phosphate are vital for the organism and constitute essential components of the skeleton. Serum levels are tightly hormonally regulated and maintained by exchange with three major sources: the intestines, the kidney and the bone. The effects of sex steroids on the bone have been extensively studied and it is well known that sex steroid deficiency induces bone loss, indirectly influencing renal calcium and phosphate homeostasis. However, it is unknown whether sex steroids also directly regulate renal calcium and phosphate handling, hereby potentially indirectly impacting on bone. The presence of androgen receptors (AR) and estrogen receptors (ER) in both human and rodent kidney, although their exact localization within the kidney remains debated, supports direct effects. Estrogens stimulate renal calcium reabsorption as well as phosphate excretion, while the effects of androgens are less clear. Many of the studies performed with regard to renal calcium and/or phosphate homeostasis do not correct for the calcium and phosphate fluxes from the bone and intestines, which complicates the differentiation between the direct effects of sex steroids on renal calcium and phosphate handling and the indirect effects via the bone and intestines. The objective of this study is to review the literature and current insight of the role of sex steroids in calcium and phosphate handling in the kidney.
Molecular and cellular endocrinology. 2017 Nov 20 [Epub ahead of print]
Rougin Khalil, Na Ri Kim, Ferran Jardi, Dirk Vanderschueren, Frank Claessens, Brigitte Decallonne
Clinical and Experimental Endocrinology, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49 Box 902, Belgium. Electronic address: ., Clinical and Experimental Endocrinology, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49 Box 902, Belgium., Molecular Endocrinology, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49 Box 901, Belgium.