PURPOSE: We present a consensus view of members of the International Children's Continence Society on the therapeutic intervention in congenital neuropatic bladder and bowel dysfunction in children.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Discussions were held by a group of pediatric urologists and gastroenterologists appointed by the board. The following draft review document was open to all the ICCS members via the ICCS web site. Feedback was considered by the core authors and by agreement, amendments were made as necessary. The final document is not a systematic literature review. It includes relevant research when available as well as expert opinion on the current understanding of therapeutic intervention in congenital neuropatic bladder and bowel dysfunction in children.
RESULTS: Guidelines on pharmalogical and surgical intervention are presented. First the multiple modalities for intervention that do not involve surgical reconstruction are summarized concerning pharmacological agents, medical devices, and neuromodulation. The non-surgical intervention is promoted before undertaking major surgery. Indicators for non-surgical treatments depend on issues related to intravesical pressure, upper urinary tract status, prevalence of urinary tract infections, and the degree of incontinence. The optimal age for treatment of incontinence is also addressed. This is followed by a survey of specific treatments such as anticholinergics, botulinum-A toxin, antibiotics, and catheters. Neuromodulation of the bladder via intravesical electrical stimulation, sacral nerve stimulation, transcutaneous stimulation, and biofeedback is scrutinized. Then follows surgical intervention, which should be tailored to each individual, based on careful consideration of urodynamic findings, medical history, age, and presence of other disability. Treatments mentioned are: urethral dilation, vesicostomy, bladder, augmentation, fascial sling, artificial urinary sphincters, and bladder neck reconstruction and are summarized with regards to success rates and complications. Finally, the treatment on neuropathic bowel dysfunction with rectal suppositories irrigation and transrectal stimulation are scrutinized.
Rawashdeh YF, Austin P, Siggaard C, Bauer SB, Franco I, de Jong TP, Jorgensen TM. Are you the author?
Pediatric Urology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark.
Reference: Neurourol Urodyn. 2012 Jun;31(5):615-20.