Patients with vesicoureteral reflux and concomitant bladder and bowel dysfunction (BBD) are at high risk for febrile urinary tract infections. Risk factors for BBD have been identified in retrospective studies without validated measures.
We conducted a secondary analysis of the Randomized Intervention for Children with Vesicoureteral Reflux and Careful Urinary Tract Infection Evaluation trials. The outcome of interest in the analysis of these children was the development of BBD, defined by using the dysfunctional voiding questionnaire, during any time point in the studies. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine the independent effects of sex, baseline percentile BMI, cohort status (Randomized Intervention for Children with Vesicoureteral Reflux versus Careful Urinary Tract Infection Evaluation), continuous antibiotic prophylaxis (yes or no), and reflux status (dilating versus nondilating) on the development of BBD.
Three hundred and eighteen patients met inclusion criteria. The majority of patients (244 patients, 77%) were not toilet trained at baseline visit. The median baseline age (interquartile range) was 21 months (11-35 months), and 299 (94%) patients were girls. During the study period, 111 (35%) developed BBD. Baseline BMI percentile was not associated with BBD development (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.9-1.1), whereas female sex was highly associated with BBD development (aOR = 12.7; 95% CI: 1.6-98). Patients with dilating reflux at baseline were 2.1 times more likely to develop BBD (95% CI: 1.2-3.7). Antibiotic prophylaxis was not associated with BBD development (aOR = 0.8; 95% CI: 0.4-1.4).
Dilating reflux and female sex were identified as risk factors for development of BBD, but neither BMI nor prophylactic antibiotics was associated with the development of BBD.
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Pediatrics. 2018 Jan [Epub]
Thomas W Gaither, Christopher S Cooper, Zachary Kornberg, Laurence S Baskin, Hillary L Copp
Department of Urology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California; and., Department of Urology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa., Department of Urology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California; and .