Differences in the Use of Fusion Biopsy Between Black and White Men Presenting with Suspicion of Prostate Cancer - Editorial

For decades, clinicians and researchers alike have been aware of major racial disparities in prostate cancer. Black men in the United States present more often, with higher PSA values, at younger ages, and are more likely to die from prostate cancer than their White counterparts. Within this framework of indisputable facts, there is a lot of discussion to what factors lead to these racial disparities. Is it genetics? Is it social determinants of health? Is it attitudes to the health system due to mistrust from many past horrible failed experiments (i.e. Tuskegee)?

Is it lifestyle differences? Is it all access to care? Recent data from the Veterans Affairs Health System have suggested that when given equal access, outcomes among Black and White men can be similar. While this certainly supports the importance of access to care, this does not mean Black and White men present with equal rates of prostate cancer indicating residual disparities that cannot be explained by access alone. However, as we move forward with newer technologies (MRI, genomics, next generation imaging), whether Black patients truly have equal access to these advances is unknown.

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stephen j freedland

Stephen J. Freedland, MD

Stephen J. Freedland, MD, is director of the Center for Integrated Research in Cancer and Lifestyle and co-director of the Cancer Genetics and Prevention Program and Associate Director for Faculty Development at the Cedars-Sinai Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute. He is also a faculty physician in the Division of Urology within the Department of Surgery at Cedars-Sinai. He has served on numerous American Urological Association guideline panels for prostate cancer and co-chaired a prostate cancer guideline panel for the American Society of Clinical Oncology.

Dr. Freedland's clinical area of expertise focuses on urological diseases, particularly benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. His approach toward cancer prevention and awareness focuses on treating the whole patient, not just the disease, by combining traditional Western medicine with complementary holistic interventions. His research interests include investigations on urological diseases and the role of diet, lifestyle and obesity in prostate cancer development and progression, as well as prostate cancer among racial groups and risk stratification for men with prostate cancer.


PCAN: April 2021

Racial Disparity in the Utilization of Multiparametric MRI–Ultrasound Fusion Biopsy for the Detection of Prostate Cancer - Full Text Article

Background
Black men have significantly higher incidence and are up to three times more likely to die of prostate cancer (PCa) than White men. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging-ultrasound fusion biopsy (FBx) has emerged as a promising modality for the detection of PCa. The goal of our study is to identify differences in utilization of FBx between Black and White men presenting with suspicion of PCa.

Methods
We performed a retrospective review of Black and White men who presented with suspicion of PCa and required biopsy from January 2014 to December 2018. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to study the influence of race on the utilization of FBx.
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PCAN: March 2021

Androgen Receptor Gain in Circulating Free DNA and Splicing Variant 7 in Exosomes Predict Clinical Outcome in CRPC Patients Treated with Abiraterone and Enzalutamide - Full-Text Article

Background - Androgen receptor (AR) signaling inhibitors represent the standard treatment in metastatic castration resistance prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients. However, some patients display a primary resistance, and several studies investigated the role of the AR as a predictive biomarker of response to treatment. This study is aimed to evaluate the role of AR in liquid biopsy to predict clinical outcome to AR signaling inhibitors in mCRPC patients.

Methods - Six milliliters of plasma samples were collected before first-line treatment with abiraterone or enzalutamide. Circulating free DNA (cfDNA) and exosome-RNA were isolated for analysis of AR gain and AR splice variant 7 (AR-V7), respectively, by digital droplet PCR.
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PCAN: February 2021

Prospective Study to Define the Clinical Utility and Benefit of Decipher Testing in Men Following Prostatectomy - Full-Text Article

Background - Genomic classifiers (GC) have been shown to improve risk stratification post prostatectomy. However, their clinical benefit has not been prospectively demonstrated. We sought to determine the impact of GC testing on postoperative management in men with prostate cancer post prostatectomy.

Methods - Two prospective registries of prostate cancer patients treated between 2014 and 2019 were included. All men underwent Decipher tumor testing for adverse features post prostatectomy (Decipher Biosciences, San Diego, CA). The clinical utility cohort, which measured the change in treatment decision-making, captured pre- and postgenomic treatment recommendations from urologists across diverse practice settings (n = 3455). The clinical benefit cohort, which examined the difference in outcome, was from a single academic institution whose tumor board predefined “best practices” based on GC results (n = 135).
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PCAN: January 2021

Preoperative Frailty Predicts Adverse Short-Term Postoperative Outcomes in Patients Treated with Radical Prostatectomy - Full-Text Article

Background - To investigate the effect of frailty on short-term postoperative outcomes in patients with prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy (RP).

Methods - Within the National Inpatient Sample database, we identified 91,618 RP patients treated between 2008 and 2015. The Johns Hopkins Adjusted Clinical Groups frailty-defining indicator was applied, and we examined the rates of frailty over time, as well as its effect on overall complications, major complications, nonhome-based discharge, length of stay (LOS), and total hospital charges (THCs). Time trends and multivariable logistic, Poisson and linear regression models were applied.
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PCAN: December 2020

3-Year Results Following Treatment with the Second Generation of the Temporary Implantable Nitinol Device in Men with LUTS Secondary to Benign Prostatic Obstruction - Full-Text Article

Background - To report the 3-year results of a prospective, single arm, multicenter, international clinical study with the second generation of the temporary implantable nitinol device (iTIND; Medi-Tate Ltd®, Israel) on men suffering lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic obstruction (BPO).
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PCAN: November 2020

Abiraterone and Enzalutamide Had Different Adverse Effects on the Cardiovascular System: A Systematic Review with Pairwise and Network Meta-Analyses - Full Text Article

Background Abiraterone and enzalutamide may increase the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC).

Methods A comprehensive literature search was performed using a combination of keywords related to “abiraterone,” “enzalutamide,” “prostate cancer,” and “adverse events.” Phase II–IV randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on abiraterone
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