Understanding Competing Risks for Mortality Among Men with Nonmetastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer 

A pressing issue facing men with a rising PSA despite hormone therapy is whether to pursue more potent androgen receptor inhibition. While novel PET imaging such as PSMA scans are reducing the size of this M0 CRPC population, this setting remains fairly common in regions of the world where PSA screening is common and men are treated for initially localized prostate cancer. Relapsed disease is first manifested as a PSA rise, and many urologists and oncologists will utilize androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) prior to the onset of visible metastases on standard CT/MRI or technetium bone scans. We know that most of these men have metastases, but these metastases remain small and below the limit of detection of these scans. We also know that most of these men will likely die of metastatic prostate cancer over the next 4-8 years, and therapies that can delay or prevent prostate cancer-specific mortality are needed.

Recent phase 3 trials suggest that both apalutamide, enzalutamide, and darolutamide can delay metastasis-free survival (MFS) significantly in such men with M0 CRPC who have rapid PSA doubling times (<10 mo) and an elevated PSA of 2.0 or higher. These men may have disease in their prostates or regional nodal


stephen j freedland

Stephen J. Freedland, MD

Stephen J. Freedland, MD, is director of the Center for Integrated Research in Cancer and Lifestyle and co-director of the Cancer Genetics and Prevention Program and Associate Director for Faculty Development at the Cedars-Sinai Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute. He is also a faculty physician in the Division of Urology within the Department of Surgery at Cedars-Sinai. He has served on numerous American Urological Association guideline panels for prostate cancer and co-chaired a prostate cancer guideline panel for the American Society of Clinical Oncology.

Dr. Freedland's clinical area of expertise focuses on urological diseases, particularly benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. His approach toward cancer prevention and awareness focuses on treating the whole patient, not just the disease, by combining traditional Western medicine with complementary holistic interventions. His research interests include investigations on urological diseases and the role of diet, lifestyle and obesity in prostate cancer development and progression, as well as prostate cancer among racial groups and risk stratification for men with prostate cancer.

PCAN: July 2019

Impact of Age, Comorbidity, and PSA Doubling Time on Long-Term Competing Risks for Mortality Among Men with Non-Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer - Full Text Article

Background - Understanding competing risks for mortality is critical in determining prognosis among men with nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (nmCRPC), a disease state that often affects older men and has substantial heterogeneity in risk of cancer mortality. We sought to determine the impact of age, comorbidity, and PSA doubling time (PSADT) on competing risks for mortality in men with nmCRPC.
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PCAN: June 2019

Prevalence of DNA Repair Gene Mutations in Localized Prostate Cancer According to Clinical and Pathologic Features: Association of Gleason Score and Tumor Stage - Full Text Article

Background - DNA repair gene mutations are present in 8–10% of localized prostate cancers. It is unknown whether this is influenced by clinicopathologic factors.

Methods - We interrogated localized prostate adenocarcinomas with tumor DNA sequencing information from the TCGA validated (n = 333) and Nature Genetics (n = 377) datasets. Homologous recombination repair genes included in our

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PCAN: May 2019

Efficacy and Safety of Enucleation vs. Resection of Prostate for Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials - Full Text Article

The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy and safety of transurethral enucleation and resection of the prostate for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). 

This meta-analysis was conducted through a systematic search before 1 September 2018. All included publications were randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Efficacy was evaluated based on International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax), and quality of life (QoL).
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PCAN: April 2019

Statin Use and Time to Progression in Men on Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer - Full Text Article

Recent evidence suggests that statins may improve prostate cancer outcomes; however, their role in active surveillance (AS) is poorly characterized. We aimed to evaluate the association between statin use at diagnosis and time to progression on AS. 

Data were obtained from a prospectively maintained cohort of men undergoing AS between 1995 and 2016 at our institution. All men satisfied the low-risk criteria: Gleason score <7, <4 positive cores, <50% involvement of any core, and prostate-specific antigen level <10.0 ng/dL. Kaplan–Meier curves and
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PCAN: March 2019

Prostatic Urethral Lift (PUL) for Obstructive Median Lobes: 12 Month Results of the MedLift Study - Full Text Article

Evidence indicating Prostatic Urethral Lift (PUL) delivers significant improvement in symptomatic BPH with low morbidity is based on subjects with lateral lobe (LL) enlargement only. MedLift was an FDA IDE extension of the L.I.F.T. randomized study designed to examine the safety and efficacy of PUL for the treatment of obstructive middle lobes (OML). Inclusion criteria for this non-randomized cohort were identical to the L.I.F.T. randomized study, except for requiring an OML: ≥ 50 years of age, IPSS ≥ 13, and Qmax ≤ 12 ml/s. Primary endpoint analysis quantified the improvement in IPSS over baseline and rate of postprocedure serious complications.
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PCAN: February 2019

Association of Androgen Deprivation Therapy with Thromboembolic Events in Patients with Prostate Cancer: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis: Full-Text Article

Background: Whether androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) causes excess thromboembolic events (TEs) in men with prostate cancer (PCa) remains controversial and is the subject of the US Food and Drug Administration safety warning. This study aims to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on previous studies to determine whether ADT is associated with TEs in men with PCa.
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