- Development Mechanics
- Animal Models
- Mutations and Mechanisms
- DNA Damage and Repair
- Receptor tyrosine kinases
- Molecular expression subtypes
- Non-coding RNA
- Cancer stem cells
- Liquid biopsies
DNA damage response (DDR) gene mutations in UC was another important focus in BCa, and all cancers in general. DDR gene mutations (ie BRCA 1/2, ATM, ERCC2) leads to microsatellite instability (MSI) and higher level of neoantigens. Their presence has been associated with response to therapy as well, specifically chemotherapy. Immunotherapy also depends on higher levels of tumor mutational burden (TMB), which bladder cancer is known to have a high neoantigen load.
He and his working group helped consolidate all this novel data into the first edition of the chapter of “Basic Science” for bladder cancer. His main conclusions were as follows:
- Bladder cancers can be grouped into basal and luminal molecular subtypes characterized by biomarkers associated with normal urothelial development. The molecular subtypes are clinically significant.
- Bladder cancer mutational profiles are associated with chemotherapy response.
- Better preclinical tools are being developed to help define the molecular mechanisms involved in tumor progression and metastases.
- Chromatin modifiers, non-coding RNAs, and metabolism are all biologically significant – not yet clear how they are clinically significant.
- “Liquid biopsies” have the potential to reveal tumor genomic properties.
Presented by: David McConkey
Written by: Thenappan Chandrasekar, MD, Clinical Fellow, University of Toronto, Twitter: @tchandra_uromd at the 37th Congress of Société Internationale d’Urologie - October 19-22, 2017- Lisbon, Portugal