More than 75% of hospital-acquired or nosocomial urinary tract infections are initiated by urinary catheters, which are used during the treatment of 15-25% of hospitalized patients. Among other purposes, urinary catheters are primarily used for draining urine after surgeries and for urinary incontinence. During catheter-associated urinary tract infections, bacteria travel up to the bladder and cause infection. A major cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infection is attributed to the use of non-ideal materials in the fabrication of urinary catheters. Such materials allow for the colonization of microorganisms, leading to bacteriuria and infection, depending on the severity of symptoms. The ideal urinary catheter is made out of materials that are biocompatible, antimicrobial, and antifouling. Although an abundance of research has been conducted over the last forty-five years on the subject, the ideal biomaterial, especially for long-term catheterization of more than a month, has yet to be developed. The aim of this review is to highlight the recent advances (over the past 10 years) in developing antimicrobial materials for urinary catheters and to outline future requirements and prospects that guide catheter materials selec tion and design.
This review article intends to provide an expansive insight into the various antimicrobial agents currently being researched for urinary catheter coatings. According to CDC, approximately 75% of urinary tract infections are caused by urinary catheters and 15-25% of hospitalized patients undergo catheterization. In addition to these alarming statistics, the increasing cost and health related complications associated with Catheter Associated UTIs make the research for antimicrobial urinary catheter coatings even more pertinent. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the history, the latest progress in development of the coatings and a brief conjecture on what the future entails for each of the antimicrobial agents discussed.
Acta biomaterialia. 2016 Dec 01 [Epub ahead of print]
Priyadarshini Singha, Jason Locklin, Hitesh Handa
College of Engineering, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA., College of Engineering, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA; Department of Chemistry, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA. Electronic address: ., College of Engineering, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA. Electronic address: .