Bladder management in individuals with spinal cord injury or disease during and after primary rehabilitation: a retrospective cohort study.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the course of bladder evacuation and the predictors of intermittent self-catheterization (ISC) in individuals with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD) during and after primary rehabilitation.

The patient database of a single spinal cord injury rehabilitation center was screened for patients with NLUTD admitted for primary rehabilitation. Patient characteristics and bladder evacuation details were collected during and after rehabilitation. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate predictors of ISC: sex, age > 65 years, injury severity, and bladder capacity ≥ 400 ml.

Data of 255 men (74.3%) and 88 women (25.7%) with a mean age of 54 ± 19 years were analyzed. Early in rehabilitation, 21.6% of the evaluated individuals used ISC. In 17.8%, the bladder was evacuated by transurethral catheterization (TUC). The proportion of TUC decreased during rehabilitation and dropped below 2% at the last follow-up. In contrast, the proportion of ISC and suprapubic catheterization (SPC) increased to 28% and 12.8%, respectively, during rehabilitation. These proportions increased further thereafter and reached 37.7% and 18.6% for ISC and SPC, respectively. Age and injury severity were significant (p ≤ 0.041) negative predictors, whereas male sex and above-average bladder capacity were positive predictors of ISC.

There is a shift toward bladder evacuation by ISC and SPC during and after primary rehabilitation. Bladder evacuation by ISC, regarded as the gold standard, is less common in individuals > 65 years or with high-level tetraplegia. The optimal bladder evacuation method needs to be established individually, considering all medical and psychosocial factors rather than simply following a guideline.

World journal of urology. 2022 May 23 [Epub ahead of print]

Jörg Krebs, Jens Wöllner, Franziska Rademacher, Jürgen Pannek

Clinical Trial Unit, Swiss Paraplegic Centre, Nottwil, Switzerland., Neurourology, Swiss Paraplegic Centre, Guido A. Zäch Str. 1, 6207, Nottwil, Switzerland., Neurourology, Swiss Paraplegic Centre, Guido A. Zäch Str. 1, 6207, Nottwil, Switzerland. .

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