Perspectives on the urological care in Parkinson's disease patients.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is recognized as the most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer's disease. Lower urinary tract symptoms are common in patients with PD, either storage symptoms (overactive bladder symptoms or OAB) or voiding symptoms.

The most important diagnostic clues for urinary disturbances are provided by the patient's medical history. Urodynamic evaluation allows the determination of the underlying bladder disorder and may help in the treatment selection. Pharmacologic interventions especially anticholinergic medications are the first-line option for treating OAB in patients with PD. However, it is important to balance the therapeutic benefits of these drugs with their potential adverse effects. Intra-detrusor Botulinum toxin injections, electrical stimulation were also used to treat OAB in those patients with variable efficacy. Mirabegron is a β3-agonist that can also be used for OAB with superior tolerability to anticholinergics. Desmopressin is effective for the management of nocturnal polyuria which has been reported to be common in PD. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery is effective in improving urinary functions in PD patients. Sexual dysfunction is also common in PD. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors are first-line therapies for PD-associated erectile dysfunction (ED). Treatment with apomorphine sublingually is another therapeutic option for PD patients with ED. Pathologic hypersexuality has occasionally been reported in patients with PD, linked to dopaminergic agonists. The first step of treatment of hypersexuality consists of reducing the dose of dopaminergic medication. This review summarizes the epidemiology, pathogenesis, risk factors, genetic, clinical manifestations, diagnostic test, and management of PD. Lastly, the urologic outcomes and therapies are reviewed.

Archivio italiano di urologia, andrologia : organo ufficiale [di] Societa italiana di ecografia urologica e nefrologica. 2022 Mar 30*** epublish ***

Mohamad Moussa, Mohamad Abou Chakra, Athanasios G Papatsoris, Athanasios Dellis, Baraa Dabboucy, Michael Peyromaure, Nicolas Barry Delongchamps, Hugo Bailly, Igor Duquesne

Urology Department, Zahraa Hospital, University Medical Center, Beirut. ., Department of Urology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Lebanese University, Beirut. ., 2nd Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Sismanoglio Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens. ., Department of Urology/General Surgery, Areteion Hospital, Athens. ., Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Lebanese University, Beirut. ., Department of Urology, Cochin Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris Descartes University, Paris. ., Department of Urology, Cochin Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris Descartes University, Paris. ., Department of Urology, Cochin Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris Descartes University, Paris. ., Department of Urology, Cochin Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris Descartes University, Paris. .

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